zondag 23 juli 2017
Some 10 millennia ago, during the last Ice Age, so much water was stored in huge polar ice caps that sea levels were 120 m lower than today. The North Sea consequently wasn’t a sea, but a land bridge between Britain and Europe. Geologists call this Doggerland, after the Dogger Bank, the shallowest, largest sand bank in the North Sea today. In all probability, this now sunken land land of once undulating prairie was quite densely inhabited by Stone Age humans. These must have been their hunting grounds, their prey the mammoths whose bones fishermen sometimes still dredge up from the sea floor.
In September 1930, there existed at least one wild plan to reclaim this particular piece of sunken real estate from the seas and increase the size of Europe by linking the British Isles to the Continent. The new one would be called…DOGGERLAND, ore maybe only in the pages of Modern Mechanix, an American magazine (1928-2001) that ran under a variety of titles.
Under the title 'North Sea Drainage Project to Increase Area of Europe', a caption reads:
“If the extensive schemes for the drainage of North Sea are carried out according to the plan illustrated above, which was conceived by a group of eminent English scientists, 100,000 square miles will be added to the overcrowded continents of Europe. The reclaimed land will be walled in with enormous dykes, similar to the Netherland dykes, to protect it from the sea, and the various rivers flowing into the North Sea will have their courses diverted to different outlets by means of canals.”
Conspicuously absent are the scientists’ credentials. The logistics of building a 450-mile-long dyke connecting Norfolk (England) to Jutland (Denmark), rising 90 feet above the sea level, seem daunting enough for our own age, let alone for the 1930s. A similar dyke at the North Sea’s south end, barely 150 miles long, would only leave Antwerp and London with direct sea access, depriving the whole of the Netherlands and much of Germany and Denmark of a coastline.
The “Atlantropa” scheme proposed to form land bridges between Africa and Europe by damming and partially draining the Mediterranean
Perpetual war, grinding poverty and a time bomb of overpopulation resulting in millions of refugees crossing continents. A fitting description perhaps for the emergency facing Europe today – but those problems also fuelled a German architect’s extraordinary 1920s scheme to resettle millions of Europeans in Africa.
The “Atlantropa” scheme proposed to form land bridges between Africa and Europe by damming and partially draining the Mediterranean, allowing millions of Europeans to find a new life in what would become the southern zone of a Eurafrican supercontinent. It would, of course, lead to European domination of Africa – a fact deemed acceptable in an era scarred by racism and colonialism.
Map of proposed dams in the Strait of Gibraltar. From Herman Soergel, Lowering the Mediterranean, Irrigating the Sahara. Panropa Project (1929)
The plan contained some fantastical details with dams across the Strait of Gibraltar, the Dardanelles, and eventually between Sicily and Tunisia, each containing gigantic hydroelectric power plants, would form the basis for the new supercontinent. In its final state the Mediterranean would be converted into two basins, the western part lowered by 100 metres and the eastern part by 200 metres and an area larger than France reclaimed from the sea.
Subsequent engineering works included in Sörgel’s proposal were an extension of the Suez Canal, a new canal connecting Venice to the sea (the Adriatic Sea would have disappeared) and the creation of enormous lakes in Central Africa, which he hoped could be used to irrigate the region
Map of Herman Sörgel’s Atlantropa
A more modern map of Herman Sörgel’s Atlantropa
In line with the colonial and racist attitudes of the times, Mr Sörgel envisaged Africa to be entirely at the disposal of Europe, a continent with plenty of space to accommodate Europe’s masses.
While his proposal may sound absurd to our ears, it was taken seriously by architects, engineers, politicians and journalists at the time. The extensive Atlantropa archive in the Deutsche Museum in Munich abounds with architectural drawings for new cities, the dams and bridges of the future continent as well as letters of support and hundreds of articles about the project, which appeared in the German and international popular press, as well as in specialised engineering and geographical magazines.
What made Atlantropa so attractive was its vision of world peace achieved not through politics and diplomacy, but with a simple technological solution.
Atlantropa would be held together by a vast energy net, which would extend from the gigantic hydroelectric plant in the Gibraltar dam and provide the entirety of Europe and Africa with electricity. An independent body would have the power to switch off the energy supply to any country that posed a threat to peace.
Moreover, Mr Sörgel calculated the construction of the supercontinent would require each country to invest so much money that none would have sufficient resources to finance a war. He dedicated a large part of his work to the promotion and dissemination of the project through the press, radio, films, talks, exhibitions and even poetry and an Atlantropa symphony.
(YouTube) Clips from the 1951 Atlantropa film (deutsch) - Gibraltar Dam project
(YouTube) Atlantropa a new continent
However there were a few drawbacks to all this, in 1977 Popular Mechanics reported that Atlantropa would have shut some of the world’s busiest seaports, disrupted the economies of countries in Southern Europe and North Africa and possibly changed the ecology of the entire area.
The reduced weight of water over the volcanic Mediterranean sea floor could have caused violent eruptions and earthquakes while the ocean level in other parts of the world would have risen, causing flooding in low-lying areas.
Sörgel’s hope was that Atlantropa might satisfy Germany’s desire for Lebensraum as he calculated the construction of the supercontinent would require each country to invest so much money that none would have sufficient resources to finance a war.
Instead, under Hitler, it invaded Eastern Europe.
The Nazis never took Sörgel seriously, but who knows? In an alternate world, where the Axis won World War II, they might well have reconsidered in order to satisfy their thirst for expansion.
maandag 13 februari 2017
At the start of World War II, Singapore had symbolized the British Empire’s presence in Southeast Asia for nearly a century. When its garrison surrendered to the Japanese on February 15, 1942, Prime Minister Winston Churchill called it the worst disaster in his country’s military history. Everything that could go wrong had gone wrong. The British had pre-positioned a grossly inadequate number of aircraft and warships. Japanese bombers had sunk the only two capital ships defending Singapore—the battleship Prince of Wales and battle cruiser Repulse—when those vessels tried to contest the Japanese landings along the Thailand-Malaya frontier. The British defense of Malaya was a marvel of incompetence. Lieutenant General Tomoyuki Yamashita completely outgeneraled Lieutenant General Arthur Percival. With a force of only 70,000 he managed to kill or capture over 138,000 British, Indian, Australian, and Malayan troops.
Such details imply that with better generalship Singapore could have escaped capture. In fact, most students of the campaign believe that even in the best circumstances, a successful defense was improbable. The naval base that gave Singapore its strategic significance was located on the northern end of Singapore Island, well protected against attack by enemy warships but nearly bereft of protection against a land assault. While it is a myth that the island’s coastal batteries could fire only out to sea, they were supplied mostly with armor-piercing shells of limited use against ground forces.
As early as 1937, the British general staff had concluded that a Japanese land attack was feasible and could capture Singapore in two months’ time. Little was done about this, however. Many of the British, Indian, and Australian forces eventually deployed to block a Japanese advance were inadequately trained. Furthermore, the Royal Air Force constructed air fields in the northernmost part of the colony for the 178 war planes assigned to defend Malaya, which forced the British army to defend them and left it with a long, vulnerable seaward flank.
Nor did the British revisit their naval strategy for Singapore. The naval base held few warships. Instead it was intended to receive and supply a British battle fleet that would be dispatched to Singapore if an emergency arose. With the outbreak of war in Europe, however, the Royal Navy had its hands full in the Atlantic. And with the fall of France, it had to defend the Mediterranean as well. Sending a substantial battle fleet was therefore out of the question. Sending only the Prince of Wales and Repulse was a pathetic bluff.
Logically, the British might have cut their losses by stationing only a token force at Singapore, similar to the 10,000 troops sacrificed at Hong Kong. But Singapore’s status as a jewel of the British Empire, and its mythic characterization as the “Gibraltar of the East,” practically forced Churchill to make a major bid to hold it—not enough, as matters turned out, to do so successfully, but enough to swell the number of forces lost and make the disaster even worse than it would otherwise have been.
It is impossible to imagine a single twist of fate that could have saved Singapore. But what if a combination of events had turned in Britain’s favor? Suppose the British defense had been better conducted. Suppose the carrier Indomitable, which had been assigned to join the Prince of Wales and Repulse, had not run aground. Suppose instead that it had arrived on station and that its aircraft had fended off the swarms of enemy bombers and allowed the two capital ships to contest the Japanese landings.
Suppose that Yamashita, whose audacity earned him the sobriquet the “Tiger of Malaya,” had shown greater caution. Suppose that, when the Japanese finally landed on Singapore Island, Percival had counterattacked (as he planned to do until dissuaded by subordinates)—an attack, we now know, that would likely have defeated Yamashita’s troops, which had badly outstripped their supply lines. And suppose that the Japanese high command then did not reinforce Yamashita enough to make another try.
This is a mighty string of suppositions. But if, by whatever wizardry, Singapore managed to elude capture, what then? Would that have substantially altered the war in the Pacific?
In fact, the principal positive result would have been humanitarian. The Japanese could not have sent most of Singapore’s defenders to labor on the infamous Burma-Thailand Railroad, where 16,000 of them died. Nor could the Japanese have terrorized the population of Singapore and murdered as many as 50,000 of its Chinese residents.
From a strategic standpoint, however, it is unlikely that Britain’s retention of Singapore would have redounded to the Allies’ advantage. The denial of Singapore to the enemy would not have been a serious problem for the Japanese. Although historically the Japanese navy did use Singapore as a port, the need to combat the United States meant that its major bases were the Home Islands, Rabaul, and Truk.
As a naval asset, Singapore was of dubious value. British First Sea Lord Dudley Pound had declared in August 1940, “There is no object in sending a fleet to Singapore unless it is strong enough to fight the Japanese fleet.” Days before the outbreak of the Pacific War, British Admiral Tom Phillips and his American counterpart, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, concurred that Singapore held no potential for offensive operations. Pound considered Trincomalee, Ceylon, superior to Singapore as a base from which to protect the Indian Ocean—and historically Trincomalee proved effective for that mission.
From an army standpoint, Singapore was no better as a springboard for offensive operations. The Japanese could easily block any attempt to move north along the Malayan peninsula. True, heavy bombers based on Singapore could have struck targets across a wide swath of Japanese-occupied territory in Southeast Asia. But, and here is the key problem, any resources dispatched to Singapore, whether aerial, naval, or army, would have come at the expense of theaters where they were more urgently needed.
And yet, even if Great Britain had staved off the 1941–42 invasion attempt, for reasons of imperial prestige it could never have abandoned Singapore. Instead, it would have been condemned to an endless effort to keep the island resupplied and reinforced. The vital Atlantic and Mediterranean theaters would have suffered. Offensives elsewhere might have been delayed or might have failed outright. Even if it remained in British hands, Singapore, the renowned “Jewel of the East,” would have proven only an overpriced bauble.
vrijdag 27 januari 2017
In the late 1940s, the U.S. Army created an entire fake military that it could use for realistic training.
The ground combat branch developed a deep and complex history for this “aggressor” that reflected concerns from World War II and the emerging Cold War.
The basic premise, as described in a series of official field manuals, was that a “totalitarian state … [had] established a fascist-type of organization called the Circle Trigon Party” in a devastated post-war Western Europe.
These “Circle Trigonists” clearly were aping the Nazis.
The “official” history stated that the party formed in Bavaria, Germany before spreading into Tyrol in Austria, southern France, northern Italy and Spain. Washington feared that many Nazis had fled to these locales after World War II.
At the close of World War II in 1945 the chaotic conditions in Western Europe, which resulted from fundamental disagreements between the victorious allied nations and the failure of the United Nations Organization, gave rise to a new nation, Aggressor.
When the surrender of Germany was followed almost immediately by wholesale allied withdrawals, a small group of determined men, confirmed in their belief in the totalitarian nation-state, gathered in Spain, took over the control of the weakening government, and established the Aggressor Republic.
That this action was possible was due primarily to quarrels that broke out among- the former allies, a disinclination on the part of any one nation to accept the responsibility for the direct physical action necessary to suppress this new group, and finally the clever use of propaganda and slogans which freely used the terms "democracy," "the people," and other similar terms.
As soon as the new government had firmly consolidated its position in Spain and Spanish Morocco, it began to infiltrate to the north and east. A fertile field for their well planned and executed propaganda was found in southern France, northern Italy, Bavaria, and the Tyrol, where United States occupational forces were rapidly being redeployed. A strong secession movement grew almost overnight in those areas which the weakened central governments of France and Italy and the ineffective provisional government of Bavaria were powerless to prevent. The natural revulsion of these peoples toward communism asserted itself and provided a strong psychological weapon for the organizers. All races and classes were appealed to.
After a brief but violent uprising in early 1946, aided and controlled from the Aggressor capital by means of a highly trained fifth column, these two areas were granted independence, promptly applied for union with Aggressor, and were admitted to the Republic.
Immediately upon the successful conclusion of this venture, Aggressor entered upon a well-balanced and carefully controlled period of intense development and organization of all resources and phases of national life. The immediate goal of national unity and relative self-sufficiency was quickly obtained. In contrast to its neighbors, Aggressor was reasonably prosperous and its people happy and contented with the new government which started fulfilling its initial promises. Of course, one distinct advantage enjoyed by the new nation was that the bulk of its lands had escaped the destruction of war which had so severely impaired the national economy of other European nations.
Aggressor was in a peculiar position in the world, as her able leaders had foreseen. Initially backed in secret by the western allied powers as a buffer against the Slavic nations and communism, Aggressor was even more secretly supported by the Comintern as an acceptable vehicle for the spread of communism throughout Catholic Europe and as a buffer to the wealthy western allies. Aggressor was engaged in a race against time. She must be a well established power when the dull and war-weary former allies realized her true ambition and organized to put her down. Her leaders believed that she must strike before that day. Her blow must be against the most powerful nation. While she was doing so the others must be kept placated. The nation to be struck must not be allowed to reach her offensive potential in order to lead the strike against the new nation.
Turning its attention from the devastated areas of Western Europe to the prosperous and unscathed lands of North America, Aggressor began plans in early 1946 for an invasion of the United States. Although the United States had emerged from the war as a strong military nation, its hasty and ill-advised demobilization together with widespread internal disturbances and general war weariness finally convinced the High Command that such a plan offered reasonable chance of success if aided by a well organized subversive organization and a skillful propaganda campaign.
Living up to its suggestive name, the newly founded confederation went into action. An expedition was hurriedly formed. To achieve strategic surprise, the California coast was selected as the invasion point. It was hoped that California, and perhaps Arizona and New Mexico, would be quickly overrun and then a negotiated peace obtained in which these areas would be ceded to Aggressor in return for an alliance between the two countries. The Rocky Mountains would provide a barrier to the movement of the bulk of the United States general reserves located in the Mississippi Valley and in the Atlantic coastal region.
The first military move in this plan was the seizure of the Panama Canal. In the guise of refugees and displaced persons from Europe, a large, well-armed and trained group settled around the Canal. Then, aided by agents and sympathizers in the Zone, the control of the Canal was quickly and easily secured. Perfectly timed with this seizure, the Expeditionary Force sailed through the Canal and up the west coast, landing as planned at several points on the California coast in November 1946. Simultaneously guided missile attacks were launched against the great rail and road centers of the Midwest and the industrial rectangle. Saboteurs blew in tunnels and smashed bridges that canalized communications through the Rockies.
The Expedition met with initial success, but the United States forces rallied rather more quickly than was expected and a grave and nearly fatal logistical error became apparent. The supply line was too long and exposed for the relatively small navy. Complete disaster was avoided only through the active assistance of American Quisling groups and sympathizers who had penetrated even into the United States Government.
Chiefly through the services of this group, a compromise peace was accepted. The Aggressor Forces were withdrawn from the Continental United States, but the seizure of certain Caribbean bases by Aggressor and the coups d'etat by Aggressor-influenced parties in neighboring Central American countries were recognized by the United States.
Since the signing of the peace treaty, Aggressor has redoubled its efforts to create a large, well-trained and equipped, air-transportable Armed Force. In this, they were aided by the rapid acquisition of thousands of long range United States aircraft abandoned in Europe upon the withdrawal of United States occupational forces. While in a sense the California Expedition was a failure, it gave indications of future possible success if conducted with more careful planning and in greater force. Propaganda aimed at the American Government and Armed Forces has flooded the country in various disguises. In all probability, it is only a question of time until Aggressor renews its attempt to subjugate the North American continent.
The newly acquired lands raised the population figure of the Republic to about 110,000,000. In addition, an active campaign, was launched to attract immigrants and displaced persons from other European nations. Scientists, soldiers, and professional men of all types were particularly desired. Preferential treatment was accorded leaders in scientific, industrial, and military fields. Former Quisling groups of other nations took full advantage of this offer.
Strong efforts have been adopted to increase the population by raising the normal birth rate. The usual means of bounties, state education for certain children, and other conventional practices are in effect. The ultimate result, of course, will be the necessity of acquiring new lands to accommodate the fast-growing population.
III. LANGUAGE AND RELIGION
Spanish has been adopted as the official language; although it has not fully supplanted the local French, German, and Italian in certain areas, it is expected to do so in the course of another generation. In this matter and in religion, Aggressor has proved to be tactful, employing subtle means to achieve its ends.
While there is no state religion as such, complete religious freedom is enjoyed throughout the Republic. This policy has had the distinct advantage of not antagonizing or alienating any religious group. In fact, Aggressor agents have infiltrated the various religions and use them •abroad to further their own national propaganda.
IV. FORM OF GOVERNMENT
The government is completely totalitarian in form. Control is highly centralized at the top and tends somewhat toward bureaucracy. It enjoys the normal advantages attendant on totalitarianism, i. e., efficiency and quick decisive action with all branches of national life directed toward a common end (e. g., the quick mobilization for war in 1946).
Government functions are marked by impressive ritual and an air of mystery. This has had a strong appeal to many classes of people in the country.
The real power in government is in the hands of a small group of men. The total membership in this select group, having representatives from all professions, is for the most part unknown. International figures are present, among whom Martin Bormann, Tito Farruchi, Pilar Cordoba, and the great industrialist and financier, Kurt Fryssen, hold government portfolios. Strict party discipline is a fetish. Leadership is vested in the Supreme Council, familiarly termed the "Trinity" by followers and enemies alike. Bormann represents the Teutonic peoples, the popular Farruchi the Italians and French, and Cordoba the Spanish and Arab peoples. All of these men are popular, dynamic figures. Their authority appears to be equal.
Considerable emphasis has been placed upon development of national industry. With the factories of Bavaria and northern Italy as a nucleus, industry has been expanded and dispersed according to a well-conceived plan of national strategy. In this connection, the communication system has been revolutionized. The nation's war potential has been extensively developed. The manufacture of atomic weapons, though not definitely known, is believed to be taking place. Industry is closely coordinated with the needs of the armed forces.
VI. ARMED FORCES
The armed forces have been rapidly expanded along sound lines. Disbanded troops of many nations flocked to the Aggressor Republic and formed the cadre of a large well-balanced professional fighting force. Conscription was inaugurated to build up a large trained reserve. Experienced military leadership was readily available and eager to accept employment; all were welcomed. The remnants of the Wehrmacht and the Junkers were again employed and rapidly regained their old self-esteem.
The training of all components is extremely thorough and rigorous. A very high standard of discipline is maintained; morale and esprit de corps are excellent, and the prestige of the armed forces is high.
The standing army is composed of two army groups, each numbering roughly 1,000,000 men. In addition, a third army group headquarters exists to train and control a replacement training army and a peoples militia integrated with the national police to be used as a final reserve in the event of invasion. The air force maintains two operational air armies and in case of emergency assumes control of all civil aviation which is organized along military lines. One army group and an air army are stationed in Spain and Morocco, the other army group and air army in France and Italy.
The naval arm, while not large, is well developed. Weak in capital ships, the Aggressor Navy has emphasized submarines, aircraft carriers, and small, fast torpedo boats. Marine detachments perform local security duties, man naval antiaircraft defenses, and carry out shore patrol and other administrative functions. They are not organized for ground combat.
The nation's manpower, including women, has been carefully registered and graded by mental and physical profiles. In general, all combat arms receive about the same proportion of the various classifications. The infantry, however, receives particular attention and its recruits are carefully selected for physical stamina. Within the infantry, the fusiliers are a highly selected group, and represent the pick of the nation's manhood.
Every citizen is drafted for national service and directed to the work he can perform most efficiently. Those not accepted by the armed forces are carefully regulated as to type and place of work. Air raid protection and fire fighting groups are well organized. In addition, all personnel on civilian assignments can be called upon for service in a military force called up in case of invasion of the homeland.
History of Aggressor
At the close of World War II in 1945 the chaotic conditions in Western Europe, resulting from fundamental disagreements between the victorious allied nations, gave rise to a new nation.
When the surrender of Germany was followed almost immediately by wholesale allied withdrawals, a small group of determined men, confirmed in their belief in the totalitarian state, established a Fascist type of organization called the Circle Trigon Party. That this action succeeded was due primarily to a disinclination on the part of any one nation to accept the responsibility for the direct physical action necessary to suppress this new group, and to the clever use of propaganda and slogans by the Circle Trigonists who freely used the terms "democracy," "the people," and other similar terms. As soon as the Party had consolidated its position in Bavaria it began to infiltrate adjacent regions. It found a fertile field for its well-planned and executed propaganda in Spain, southern France, northern Italy, and the Tyrol, which joined in the formation of the Aggressor nation late in 1945. A brutal political police system soon silenced all opposition. By early 1946 a triumvirate of three men, popularly known as "the Trinity," gained absolute control of the Circle Trigon Party and of the Aggressor nation.
Immediately upon its establishment, Aggressor entered upon a well-balanced and carefully controlled period of intense development and organization of all resources and phases of national life; quickly gaining the immediate goal of national unity and relative self-sufficiency. In contrast to its neighbors, Aggressor was reasonably prosperous and its people happy and contented with the new government as it started to fulfill its initial promises. One advantage enjoyed by the new nation was that the bulk of its lands had escaped the destruction of war which had so severely impaired the national economy of other European nations. Aggressor was in a peculiar position in the world, as her able leaders had foreseen. Initially backed in secret by both the eastern and the western powers, Aggressor was alarmed at the closer and closer friendly relations between the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and feared united action on the part of these powers. Engaged in a race against time, she must be well established before the dull and war-weary former allies realized her true ambition and organized to put her down. Her leaders believed that she must strike before that day and the blow must be against her most powerful opponent, the United States.
Turning its attention from the devastated areas of Western Europe to the prosperous and unscathed lands of North America, Aggressor began plans in early 1946 for an invasion of the United States. Although the United States had emerged from the war as a strong military nation, its hasty and ill-advised demobilization, together with widespread internal disturbance and general war-weariness, convinced the Aggressor High Command that such a plan offered a reasonable chance of success if aided by a well-organized branch of the Circle Trigon Party within the United States, and by a skillful propaganda campaign.
In late 1946, Aggressor, aided by agents and sympathizers, seized the Antilles chain of islands and the Panama Canal.
In November an Aggressor expedition then passed through the Canal and landed on the coast of California. As the Aggressor Navy was inadequate to protect the supply line, the Aggressor troops were defeated. Quisling groups in the United States, however, assisted in arranging a peace in which Aggressor retained bases in the Caribbean area. Aggressor's determination to conquer the North American continent next resulted in a second campaign in the fall of 1947. The Aggressor Third Army overran portions of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida in a large scale amphibious assault on the southeastern coast of the United States. After suffering a serious defeat this Aggressor force began an evacuation of troops while making a final stand in the Florida area. The Aggressor units which could not be evacuated were annihilated. However, individual soldiers, aided by Aggressor sympathizers, scattered over the entire United States and became members of and advisers to subversive groups.
In the meantime, Aggressor launched a combined amphibious and airborne invasion across the North Atlantic Ocean. By the winter of 1947 Aggressor held all of New England and the St. Lawrence River area, and had driven a wedge southwest through New York State to the general line BUFFALO-SCRANTON-ALBANY-NEW HAVEN.
As the Aggressor nation continued to build up its military strength in the Caribbean, emphasis was placed on preparation and training for airborne operations. Meanwhile, subversive organizations of Aggressor sympathizers in the United States grew in size and number. The tempo of subversive incidents increased. The climax of the subversive movement was an open attack in the Tennessee-Kentucky area by a subversive organization known as the Green Brigade. The attack began in April of 1948 as a series of raids on the supplies and arms stored at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The Green Brigade then captured the airfield and laid siege to the camp. As the United States launched an attack against these guerrilla forces, Aggressor Forces from the Caribbean executed a successful airborne landing in Tennessee. The United States Air Force succeeded in disrupting continued Aggressor air action and blocked the follow up air lift. The Aggressor airborne force was then annihilated and members of the Green Brigade immediately disappeared. The Circle Trigon Party again went underground. See figure 2 for Aggressor campaigns in the United States.
Concerned over the stubborn Aggressor defense of New England, and over the critical United States shipping losses in the Atlantic, the United States decided upon a limited attack against Aggressor Caribbean installations in the early spring of 1949. On 2 March, joint amphibious United States forces landed on the Island of Vieques, destroyed midget submarine pens there and at San Juan, Puerto Rico, and withdrew according to plan, after the successful completion of their mission. Immediately following this attack. Aggressor propagandists made much of the limited objective and rapid withdrawal of United States forces.
As if in retaliation for the assault against Puerto Rico, Aggressor Caribbean forces executed an airborne invasion of the United States early in May 1949. The initial attack, preceded by general labor unrest and industrial sabotage throughout South-eastern United States, resulted in Aggressor seizure of Pope Air Force Base and the Fort Bragg (North Carolina) area. The United States Air Force soon gained air superiority but not until Aggessor had air-landed an entire corps. United States forces attacked at once, brought up reinforcements, and by mid-June had killed or captured the entire Aggressor force with the exception of the most important commanders and one elite regiment. Late in May 1949, when the Aggressor High Command realized that the Carolina campaign was doomed to failure, part of a large convoy—ostensibly en route to the Caribbean—broke off in mid-Atlantic, rounded Cape Horn, and headed for the Hawaiian Islands. Secrecy was maintained by a screen of submarines and carrier-based planes which destroyed approaching ships and aircraft without a trace. The small U. S. garrison and hastily-mobilized National Guard units put up stubborn resistance, chiefly on Oahu, but by 19 June Aggressor was in control of the entire archipelago. The United States immediately organized a joint amphibious western task force. This task force assaulted Oahu on 25 October and completely recaptured the islands by mid-November. Only a few submarines and key command personnel escaped destruction in an attempted last-minute, Aggressor evacuation.
The Aggressor High Command had realized for a long time that Alaska was one of the gateways to the United States, and that, while the Hawaiian Islands were in possession of Aggressor, a route was open to invade Alaska. Hence plans were made, and appropriate supplies were stockpiled on the island of Hawaii for an amphibious operation against Alaska. No definite date had been set for the operation, but when the United States counter-invasion plans of Hawaii became known, Aggressor decided that an Alaskan invasion would serve as a counterstroke that would render the northern flank of the United States vulnerable. On 4 October 1949, Aggressor Task force "Schnee" departed from Hilo, and made an amphibious landing in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. By mid-February Aggressor units had advanced beyond Northway.
Taking advantage of interior lines of communications, United States forces again mounted a major raid on the island of Vieques lying just east of the Aggressor stronghold of Puerto Rico. Defensive forces were quickly overrun and the submarine base installations, which had been repaired after the raid of March 1949, were again demolished.
As if in retaliation Aggressor mounted an airborne attack on the Fort Bragg, North Carolina area. United States Air Forces reacted swiftly, secured air superiority and cut in on the Aggressor aerial line of communication. A counterattack of two airborne divisions with strong aerial support quickly destroyed the invading forces which could no longer be supplied.
When first established, Aggressor had a population of 100,000,000. By 1949, with the acquisition of eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg, Aggressor's population reached 150,000,000. Strong efforts have been adopted to increase the population by raising the normal birth rate. Because scientists, soldiers, and professional men of all types have been receiving preferential treatment, many have migrated from adjacent countries to Aggressor.
II. Language and Religion
Aggressor (based on Esperanto as modified by local usage) has been adopted as the official language. Although it has not fully supplanted the Spanish, French, German, Italian and Flemish of the local areas, it is expected to do so in the course of a few generations. Complete religious freedom is enjoyed throughout the Republic. Aggressor agents have infiltrated various religious organizations abroad to further their own national propaganda.
III. Form of Government
The real power in government is in the hands of the "Trinity": Martin Bormann (industrialist), Tito Farruchi (demagogue), and Pilar Cordoba (police chief). In theory, Bormann represents the Teutonic peoples, Farruchi the Italians and French, and Cordoba the Spanish and Arab peoples. Their authority appears to be equal. The Trinity coordinates the pro-Aggressor subversive activities of the Circle Trigon Party in other countries with the political and military activities of the Aggressor nation.
The government is completely totalitarian in form. Control is highly centralized at the top with a tendency towards bureaucracy. It enjoys the normal advantages and disadvantages accompanying totalitarianism. All phases of national life are directed toward a common end; the execution of the plans of the Trinity. On the other hand, initiative is rapidly declining among the rank and file of the people.
Government functions are marked by impressive ritual and an air of mystery. This has had a strong appeal to many classes of people in the country.
Considerable emphasis has been placed upon development of national industry. With the factories of Bavaria and northern Italy as a nucleus, industry has been expanded and dispersed according to a well-conceived plan of national strategy. In this connection, the communication system has been revolutionized. The nation's war potential has been extensively developed. The development of atomic weapons is believed to be taking place, and a small stockpile of atomic bombs may be available by 1951. All industrial activity is closely coordinated with the needs of the armed forces. The addition of the industry of central Europe in late 1949 raise the industrial potential of Aggressor almost to the level of the United States.
V. General (The Armed Forces)
Immediately upon the formation of the Aggressor Republic, disbanded troops of many nations flocked to it and were utilized as a well-balanced, professional cadre for the armed forces. Conscription was inaugurated to build up a large trained reserve. Experienced military leadership, including the remnants of the Wehrmacht and the Junkers, was available and eager to accept employment; all were welcomed. Since these early days the armed forces have been rapidly expanded along sound lines. Control of all the armed forces has been vested in a Secretary for the Armed Forces. He and his staff constitute the Armed Forces High Command. The training of all components is extremely thorough and rigorous. A high standard of discipline is maintained; morale and esprit de corps are excellent, and the prestige of the armed forces is high. All troops are given extensive indoctrination in the principles of the Circle Trigon Party.
VI. The Aggressor Army
The Army, commanded by the Army High Command, is by far the largest of the armed forces. It is composed of three army groups, each numbering roughly 1,000,000 men. One army group is stationed in Southern France and Italy, one in Spain and Morocco, and the third in Belgium, Holland, Eastern France and Western Germany. Expeditionary forces are sent out from these three army groups for Aggressor operations in other parts of the globe. In addition, a fourth army group headquarters exists to train and control a replacement training army, and a peoples militia. In the event of invasion, this militia is to be integrated with the national police as a final reserve.
VII. The Aggressor Navy
The Navy, commanded by the Navy High Command, includes some ships of all combatant types plus amphibious and auxiliary types necessary to conduct distant amphibious operations of Corps size. This force includes several obsolete battleships, some modern battleships, a number of modern cruisers, a considerable number of destroyers and escort types, several aircraft carriers and a number of escort carriers. There are a large number of World War II type submarines and an undetermined number of ultramodern SS, capable of high submerged speeds. These units are organized into three operational fleets, corresponding to the area armies. Within the Navy there is also a Marine force trained to spearhead amphibious landings.
VIII. The Aggressor Air Force
The function of the Air Force High Command is to train and maintain the various types of air forces in the Aggressor Armed Forces. These are as follows:
a. Tactical Air Armies.
b. The Long Range Air Force.
c. The Troop Carrier Command.
d. Fighter Units of the Home Air Defense Command.
Unlike its United States counterpart, the Aggressor Air Force High Command does not retain operational control of flying units. After an individual pilot or an organization has completed training, they are assigned to one of the four operational Air Forces listed above. The activities of the Air Force High Command are then limited to logistical and maintenance functions. The Air Force High Command exercises logistical functions through the Command Area Aviation Ground Service and maintenance functions through the Aircraft Maintenance Command.
IX. Tactical Air Armies
The tactical air units, comprising the bulk of Aggressor air, are trained, equipped, and maintained by the Air Force High Command. When these units are ready for the field they are assigned to one of three air armies. The tactical air armies are particularly designed for close support of ground operations. The organization, equipment and tactics of these units are described in Chapter IV.
X. Other Air Forces
a. Long Range Air Force. The Air Force High Command trains, equips, and maintains a Long Range Air Force. This force, however, operates directly under the control of the Secretary for the Armed Forces. It is estimated that at the end of 1949 the Long Range Air Force included 500 medium bombers having an operational range of 5,000 statute miles.
b. Troop Carrier Command. The Air Force High Command also trains, equips, and maintains a Troop Carrier Command. For operations in conjunction with airborne troops, units of the Troop Carrier Command serve directly under the Secretary for the Armed Forces. In time of war all civil aviation is placed under control of the Troop Carrier Command.
c. Home Air Defense Command. This is the headquarters, directly under the Secretary for the Armed Forces, responsible for defense of all targets of enemy strategic air forces. Its combat power consists of fighter and antiaircraft units. The fighter units, estimated to include 1,000 jet fighter aircraft, are trained, equipped, and maintained by the Air Forces High Command. The antiaircraft units are trained, equipped, and maintained by the Army High Command. An extensive radar warning net covering all of the Aggressor homeland is under the Home Air Defense Command in all respects. This Command has supervision of all civilian air defense measures.
XI. Aggressor Manpower
The nation's manpower, including women, has been carefully registered and graded by mental and physical profiles. In general, the most intelligent male recruits are assigned to the armored force, the air force, the navy, the engineers, and to a lesser extent to the artillery. Infantry recruits are carefully selected for physical stamina and stolid temperament, fusilier units being favored. Women provide a high percentage of personnel throughout the medical corps and signal corps. In time of war they are assigned in large numbers to quartermaster and ordnance units, and to engineer labor battalions. Aggressor citizens whose loyalty to the state is questionable are not permitted to enter the armed forces. When such persons arrive at the age for induction into the service, they are sent to state labor camps in which they serve without pay for twice the normal induction period.
Members of the Circle Trigon Party not inducted into the Aggressor armed forces are trained in guerrilla warfare. In case of invasion of the Aggressor homeland, these Party members would form partisan groups behind the enemy lines for attack on the invader's communications. Party members outside the homeland receive varying amounts of instruction in guerrilla warfare designed to assist the Aggressor Army. Trigonist partisans within the homeland would be very effective but in other areas their effectiveness would vary. In some countries it would be insignificant.
XIII. field manuals
FM30-102: Handbook on Aggressor Military Forces
FM30-103: Aggressor Order of Battle
XIV. videos and pictures