Flag description: The ancient symbols of the Skolkan Empire, the Skol Cross surmounted by an ‘Eagle Or Displayed’ on a pure white background symbolizing new beginnings.
I. History The Skolkan Empire merged slowly during the late 14th and early 15th Centuries, expanding and contracting as circumstances permitted. In its heyday in the mid-19th Century, it comprised all of what are now the countries of Arnland, Framland, Bothnia and Otso and had overlordship of Norway. Although it exercised nominal lordship over Lindsey from the late 15th Century, in practice, it exercised little real control and this link had been broken before Skolkan’s prime. Periodically, the Skolkan Empire attempted to extend its power into Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, but its influence was always tenuous and despite the expenditure of considerable effort and resources, never amounted to much.
Skolkan’s forays into the Northern European mainland were always costly and seldom long lasting. The Empire was heavily engaged in the 30 Years War in the early 17th Century, but although initially extremely successful, ultimately, the Empire gained little from its involvement beyond heavy expenditure. However, sufficient “glory” was won to form the basis for present day nationalist myth making. The next major European adventure was much more satisfactory. The Empire allied with Russia during the Napoleonic wars and although it suffered many of the vicissitudes of war along with all the other participants, it achieved large political gains as a result, not the least of which was to achieve control of Norway (Congress of Vienna 1814). This represented the height of the Empire’s achievement. At the same time, the eastern duchies made significant profits from the sale of timber products to all the combatants, especially those for masts and spars. This provided the financial basis for the Dukes later bids for complete autonomy.
The remainder of the 19th Century was a period of turmoil and decline. The Emperor Gilles the Victorious died young in 1819, leaving a one year old son on the throne. A Regency Council was formed from the main members of the aristocracy. Throughout the Regency period, there was considerable turmoil as political developments on the European mainland influenced those elements of the population that were not represented politically. The Empire experienced the full range of political movements and agitation from straight democrats, through republicans to anarchists. The Council’s responses varied from repressive to conciliatory depending on their perception of the power and popularity of the protestors. By the time that the new Emperor, Simon the Melancholy, ascended the throne in 1842, the Rikste (Parliament) had been reformed to permit a degree of democratic representation, but wealth remained the main criterion for qualification for enfranchisement.
The Skolkan Empire would probably have followed the normal European pattern for development throughout the rest of the century but for an unfortunate series of events. The emperor’s only son drowned in a boating accident at the age of 15 in 1855 and the Emperor fell into a series of depressions from which he never really recovered. He was to live for another 50 years, during which the Empire slowly became moribund. The removal of the lynchpin of the political structure seriously weakened the centre’s hold over power as various factions and interest groups conspired with and against each other in pursuit of their aims. It was some time before the Emperor’s incapacity was acknowledged and a new Regency Council established. The separatist tendencies, in particular, gained strength during this period. A number of the regional duchies, particularly, but not exclusively, in the East, used the opportunity to gain increasing autonomy. As the century rolled on and the situation did not improve, so the centrifugal forces acting on the periphery became even stronger. Matters came to a head in the first part of the 20th Century. In 1905, Emperor Simon died, leaving an uncertain succession.
While the various contenders vied for power, Norway declared independence. Once it was clear that the Duke of Framland’s claim to the throne would not succeed, Framland also declared itself an independent state. The shock of these splits from the Empire finally brought home to the political establishment the incoherent and ineffective nature of the Empire’s structure. Over the next 5 years, radical steps were taken to improve governance; a compromise Emperor was agreed upon (Andreas the Amicable) and the role of the post brought closer to that of a constitutional monarchy. Several viable political parties were formed and recognized, although they were largely right wing in character and tended to reflect a fairly narrow range of interests. The right to vote was given to a broader range of the populace, but eligibility remained limited by age and financial qualifications. Women were, of course, excluded. By 1910, the Empire had regained sufficient stability to be able to reassess its place in the wider world. After heated debate, it was agreed that the reintegration of Norway would not be feasible. The case of Framland was more complicated, but the sober analysis of the situation by a special commission composed of military and civilian staffs, was that the effort needed would be out of all proportion to the potential gain. This assessment was allegedly helped by some judicious bribery. Instead, a Treaty of Perpetual Friendship bound Framland into the Empire’s orbit, without any excessive expenditure. The Eastern Duchies took this opportunity to formalise (and expand) the degree of autonomy that they already enjoyed. Attempts in the south of the country to gain similar levels of autonomy were violently rebuffed.
By the time of the outbreak of the First World War, the Skolkan Empire was well down the path of transforming itself into a moderately democratic, albeit authoritarian, constitutional monarchy. However, although the Empire remained neutral throughout the war, the country was unable to escape from the effects of the war. As a neutral nation, Skolkan trade should not have been affected, and within the Baltic, trade with Germany and Russia continued largely unaffected for the first half of the war. Trade beyond the Baltic was increasingly disrupted by the Allied Blockade of Germany, whereby Skolkan vessels were obliged to call at British ports for inspection to ensure they carried no contraband before being escorted through British minefields. Notwithstanding this, several vessels struck mines. The German introduction of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917, caused additional casualties within the Skolkan merchant marine. In all, some 1000 Skolkan sailors died and some 60 vessels were either sunk or severely damaged during the course of the war. There were internal tensions as well; for the most part, Skolkan favoured its historically, Russia. The Eastern Duchies sent volunteer regiments to fight in the Russian army, while individuals from central Skolkan also volunteered. In the south, however, sympathy lay with Germany, not least because of proximity and previous German support for the south’s aspirations for more autonomy.
The outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 was the spark to several years of violence. Inspired by German agitators, Arnland declared itself an independent republic in Dec 1917. The Empire’s central government tried to suppress the breakaway movement, but was itself assailed by communist sympathisers who wished to establish a soviet. A civil war raged for 3 years throughout the region before a final settlement was achieved. The independence of the Republic of Arnland was recognised, while in the east, the constitutional monarchy o Otsobothnia was established. The Skolkan Empire was declared dissolved in the 1920s and the remnant of the country assumed the name of Torrike.
Framland was originally a semi-independent duchy within the Skolkan empire. It declared its independence in 1905 in conjunction with Norway. Since that time, Torrike and Bothnia have routinely attempted to influence Framish politics, but its independence has never bee physically threatened. Even after heavy pressure, Framland was able to remain neutral during both WW1 and WW2. During the Cold War, Framland leaned westward but maintained both political and economic relations with the Soviet Union.
Following WW1, the Royals followed the path of other European nations in creating a legislative body (the Parliament, or in Framish: Landsting) and setting up a representative government.
II. Modern era (1930 until 2005)
Between 1930 and 1985 the economic situation in FRAMLAND, based on the geographical location, improved fast. In relation to the other SKOLKAN countries FRAMLAND established a workable market economy, improved human rights and used the existing diplomatic relations to become a reliable partner to the Western major countries. Meanwhile the political situation in TORRIKE starts to deteriorate. The military supported government in TYR had become increasingly unpopular. Many TORRIKE people had become disillusioned with life under military leadership. Over the years the government became increasingly totalitarian. With the political situation deteriorating, the government collapsed at the end of the 90´s under the pressure, strengthened by local militias, economic weakness and organized crime. During this time, various local militias and organized crime (OC) emerged. The SKOLKAN EAGLES are the most influential organization of this period. Established with the aim of resurrection of the Skolkan Empire, they control the OC. In 2000, President Mr. Lars PEERSSON was selected as the President of TORRIKE. He succeeded to steer Torrike towards economic success once again. Central in his policy is the military and strong nationalism, which focuses on the origin, the Skolkan Empire. Torrike rejects NATO and the EU strictly and see them as a threat to their interests. Between 2001 and 2005 the Torrikation campaign in Torrike was executed, where non Torrikan ethnicities (mainly Arns and Frams) were forced to leave the country. Violence against non-Torrikan population within the whole country resulted in large scale movement of refugees to Framland, Arnland, and Bothnia. The SKOLKAN EAGLES were massive involved in this action. The government stated that “the future belongs to the Torrikan ethnicity”. The situation was condemned by the United Nations Security Council and Torrike was asked to compliance humanitarian law and to stop all violence and displacements against non-Torrikans. As a consequence in 2005 BOTHNIA closed the border to TORRIKE and FRAMLAND. UNHCR installed several Refugee-Camps near the border of TORRIKE to support the displaced persons. At the end of 2005 more than 200.000 Refugees are still living in the Camps.
III. Contemporary era (2005 until present)
Since the fall of the Soviet Union, FRAMLAND´s political stance has become decidedly pro-Western and pro-NATO, but has declined to apply for NATO membership. However, to counter the threat of reintegration into the Greater Skolkan and assist in maintaining thei independence, Framland routinely plays a possible NATO membership to keep Torrike in check. But related to the decreasing security situation in TORRIKE, in December 2005 the government of FRAMLAND started to take part on the official NATO Partnership for Peace progra aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in EUROPE and the former Soviet Union. FRAMLAND’s membership within this program as a Free Trade Association member of the European Union was one of the few exemptions within this agreement of NATO and No NATO states. In 2009 NATO invited FRAMLAND to join the organization as first SKOLKAN country in the history. With the decision of NATO foreign Ministers on 02 December 2011 FRAMLAND joined the organization as 29th member. As a consequence TORRIKE reacted with outrage and stopped any political relationship with FRAMLAND. In 2013 a heavy earthquake occurred in northern BOTHNIA and OTSO and destroyed great parts of infrastructure. Public service is totally destroyed and out of function in the affected areas. More than 1.5 million people lost their homes. This natural disaster affects in special the economical weak OTSO. Despite international organizations start immediately an humanitarian aid program the disaster led to increasing refugeemovements from OTSO to BOTHNIA and FRAMLAND. In January 2014 the governments of FRAMLAND and BOTHNIA started to support OTSO with the supply of humanitarian goods and medical care. Between 2013 and 2015 more than 800.000 people have fled to the neighboring countries. The dangerous nature of the water road between OTSO and the western countries and the obvious high-level life standards in FRAMLAND set the conditions for OTSO´s population to use the land movement corridor via BOTHNIA to FRAMLAND. Most of the refugees are hosted by the Government of FRAMLAND in the LULEÅ and ÖSTERBOTTEN Provinces in the northern part of FRAMLAND.
Also in Framland groups are actively supporting the aggressive policy of Torrike, especially the UNITED SKOLKAN movement with its leader William Oxen. Since March anti-government demonstrations have taken place, which stretched from the province Falun to eastern Torrike. The objective of this movement and the demonstrations are mostly directed against NATO and the fact that Framland entered the NATO and for the restoration of the former SKOLKAN Empire. Supporters of these activities are usually of Torrikan ethnicity. In June there was an ncident on the border between the SKOLKAN EAGLES and Framlands government forces. The government of Torrike denies participation on the illegal border crossing. Between 22nd and 25th June 2016, what SKOLAN EAGLE leaders called a “humanitarian convoy” was reported to have crossed the border to FRAMLAND territory without permission. The head of the Security Service of FRAMLAND, Michael Holopainen said that the events were “a direct invasion by TORRIKE of FRAMLAND”. The government of TORRIKE disclaimed it violently to be involved in the conflict. As a reaction of the current situation on 15th July 2016 the members of the United Nations Security Council adopted the resolution 4532 which requests TORRIKE to disturb SKOLAN EAGLE militia activities in FRAMLAND and secure humanitarian rights. Due to the ongoing pronouncements by Torrike for a restoration of the unified Skolkan Empire, the NATO decides upon request by Framland, the deployment of a NATO Force Integration Unit in 2017 to strengthen the NATO partner Framland. The government of TORRIKE officially commented the activities in TORRIKE as an obvious threat on its eastern border and announced reasonable reaction. The President stated: “I think TORRIKE is not the only one interested in cooperation with its partners on an international level and in such areas as economy, politics and foreign security; our partners are just as interested in this cooperation. It is very easy to destroy these instruments of cooperation and it would be very difficult to rebuild them.”
Meanwhile in FRAMLAND the preparation for a NATO-Exercise is ongoing. Under the flagship of cooperation and certification troop elements out of more than 15 nations will be deployed to the FALUN Province. The training audience will consist of HQ elements, CIMIC, CBRN and InfoOps capabilities. The exercise is planned from 22nd October until 15th November 2016.
Map of FRAMLAND
Location: Northern Europe, Framland extends from the midway Baltic Sea to north of the Arctic Circle.
Geographic coordinates: 6200 N, 1500 E.
Map references: Europe.
Area: Total: 147000 sq km.
Land: 99500 sq km.
Water: 47500 sq km.
Area comparative: Three times the size of the Netherlands.
Land boundaries: bordering Torrike to the south and west, Bothnia to the north, and the Gulf of Bothnia to the east.
Coast line: 1287 km.
Maritime claims: Territorial Sea: 12nm.
Climate: Despite its northerly location, the climate is fairly mild and temperate, due to the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream.
Terrain: Most of Framland has a relatively even topography and is less than 300 m above sea level.
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Bothnia 0m, highest point: Kypkala 700 m.
Land use: agricultural land: 7,5 %, forest: 68,7 %, others: 23,8 % Irrigated land: 532 sq km.
Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic, destructive earthquakes.
Environment – current issues: A high level of air pollution has resulted in widespread soil acidification. In term of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide deposits critical loads are being exceeded.
Environment – international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air PollutionSulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling.
Country name: Framland.
Government type: constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democratic system ofgovernance.
Capital: name: FREJA, time difference: UTC+1, daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March, ends last Sunday in October.
Legal system: mixed system of civil, common and customary law.
International law organization participation: accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction.
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal.
Executive branch: head of state: His Royal Highness the King of Framland, Erasmus II.
head of government: Prime Minister (appointed by the King) Rudolf Lindblad (Framland Labour Party, since 2011), cabinet: MoD Dr Nathan Thron, MoJE&LR Siri Telle, MoE Gretha Koll, Mol Kaspar Rosen, MoFA Liisa Robert, MoF Niels Ruud, MoH&C Karl Wiik, MoET&E Peer Holst MoInd Rolf Kelp, MoW Simon Raa, MoAS&T Ludvig Parr, MoE&S Rudi Gaare, MoA&F Sture Pallessen, MoT Rigmor Silverstad, MoCMNR Gard Larsson.
Legislative branch: Unicameral parliament comes into power through the system of proportional representation that exists in multi seat constituencies (165 seats or members of the Parliament or Landsting), elections: general elections are held every four years and the Landsting cannot be dissolved.
Judical branch: The Framish court system has a three-tier structure: - The Supreme Court (handles all the civil and customary laws (1)) - The Courts of Appeal (5) -The District Courts (currently about 50).
Political Parties and leaders: Framland Democratic Party [Rita Kolbeinsson], Framland Liberal Party [Leif Maanson], Framland Labour Party [Rudolf Lindblad], Framland Green Party [Karl Lommedal], Framland Nationalist Party [Knut Kasperson].
International Organization Participation: ADB, Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, FATF, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OPCW OAS, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNICEF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, Universal Postal Union, World Bank Group, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO and the WTO.
III. MILITARY Military Alliances Framland is NATO member since 02.12.2011.
Military branches: FRAMLAND Defence Force, Army, Naval Service, Air Corps, Defence Training Centre.
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age, all volunteer, no conscription.
Manpower fit for military service: In total, the regular forces number around 20,000, with an additional 14,000 in the DRF.
Military expenditures: 1,0 of GDP.
Economy overview: The economy of Framland has a developed diverse economy, aided by timber, hydropower and iron ore. These constitute the resource base of an economy oriented toward foreign trade. The main industries include motor vehicles, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, industrial machines, precision equipment’s, chemical goods, home goods and appliances, forestry, iron and steel. Privately owned firms account for 90% of industrial output. There are, however, strict limits on foreign ownership of Framis companies. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily orientated towards foreign trade. Agriculture accounts for only a small element of GDP and employment.
Framland is not an overly prosperous country, but it manages it national budget closely and sets clear priorities. The government is fiscally responsible and rarely indulges in deficit spending. Based on this, they are consistently awarded an A credit rating. Framland has a stable economy with an educated population. It has a high standard of living. The unemployment rate is traditionally low and this is a contributing factor to the encouragement of immigration. The currency (the Frammark) is stable and fully convertible. Inflation remains low and Framland has been mostly isolated from global finance crises.
Industries: highly developed and successful range of high technology industries that make a major impact on the balance of trade and earnings, the engineering sector accounts for over 40% of output and exports.
Electricity production: 20 TWh.
Electricity consumption: 25 TWh.
Exports: US $ 38 billion (2010 est.).
Export-partners: Germany 10.4%, UK 7.4%, Finland 7.3%, Denmark 7.2%, US 6%, Norway 5,4%, Netherlands 5.3%, Belgium 4.6%, France 4.6% (2014 est.).
Imports: US $ 29 billion (2010 est.).
Import partners: Germany 17.4%, Netherlands 7.7%, Norway 7.6%, Denmark 7.4%, UK 6.2%, China 5.3%, Russia 5.2%, Finland 5.1%, France 4.4% (2014 est.).
Fiscal year: calender year.
Ethnic groups: Framish (majority), Torrikans and Bothnians.
Languages: Framish (official language), Torrikan, Sami, English (second language in larger urban areas).
Religions: Roman Catholic (87,4 %), Lutheran Church of Framland, Jewish Congregation in Framland, increasing number of Frams who profess atheism.
Population: 3.1 Mio.
0-14 years: 17,1%,
15-64 years: 62,9%
65 years and over: 20,0% Median age: 41,2 years.
Population growth rate: 0,8% (2015 est.).
Birth rate: 11,99 births/1.000 population (2015 est.).
Death rate: 9,4 deaths/1.000 population (2015 est.).
Net migration rate: 5,42 migrants/1.000 population (2015 est.).
Urbanization: urban population: 85,8% of total population (2015 est.).
Major cities: FREJA (capital) 230.000 (2010), LULEA, HARNÖSAND, GÄVLE.
VI. InfrastructureAirports: 31 (the largest airport and international passanger gateway is “Hannover International Airport”).
Airports with paved runways: 22 (under 914m: 1; 914 to 1,523m: 2; 1,524 to 2,437m: 13; 2,438 to 3,047m: 1; over 3,047m: 1).
Railways: 2,660 km.
Roadways: 55,000 km (16,000 km paved).
Ports and terminals: FREJA, WALLHAMM, LYSEKIL, OXELÖSUND, SÖDERTALJE, MÄLARHAMNAR, HUDIKSVALL, GRÄVLE and SUNDSVALL.
Telephones main lines in use: 1.01 million.
Telephones mobile cellular: 2.22 million.
Telephone system: The Framish communications market is characterised by rapidly increasing data traffic. The growth in the total number of computers and third- generation mobile phones is reflected in the total number of broadband connections. The number of mobile connections has reached saturation point, and the number of traditional land line calls has decreased dramatically.
Broadcast media: There are six national and four regional radio stations. There are four TV stations, one of which is already digital. Internet country code: .fl Internet hosts: 1.205 million.
Internet users: 2.383 million.
Print Media: There are 5 dailies and a number of daily provincial papers.
Television: Television is primarily satellite based except in the cities. International channels are readily available.
Free speech is not only tolerated but encouraged.
VIII. FRAMLAND political Parties Framland Democratic Party (FDP)
The party is committed to fiscal free market policies, including tax cuts and minimising government involvement in the economy. The Framland Democratic Party is also the only party in Parliament which proposes a reduction in public spending.
The party is often associated with wealth and is attacked by the left for defending the richest people in the country. In contrast to the party's centre-right economic orientation, FDP’s social policies are quite liberal. The Framland Democratic Party has historically been the most outspokenly pro-European Union party in Framland.
Framland Liberal Party (FLIP) In the last few election campaigns, the FLIP's main focus has been on environmental issues, education, smallbusiness and social issues. The FLIP advocates higher taxes on activities that damage the environment. The party advocates a reform of the Framish welfare state through a guaranteed minimum income for all citizens. Some other issues that the Framland Liberal Party advocate are increased labour immigration, an approach to a system of Flat tax with deductions, and more power to local authorities (provinces and municipalities). At the national convention in 2005, the FLIP decided with a margin of only five votes to still oppose Framland joining the European Union. It prefers continued membership in the European Economic Area.
Framland Labour Party (FLP) The FLP has a vision of a just world without poverty, in peace and ecological balance, where people are free and equal and have influence on the conditions affecting their lives. The FLP is a social democratic party committed to liberty, democracy and social justice. It is a reformist party that believes inpartnership and cooperation on national as well as international level. By acting together rather than just as individuals, they believe they can make a better society for all.
Framland Green Party (FGP) The founding principles of the Party are based on peace, democracy, protection of the environment, natural resources and social justice. The FGP believe in a range of policies to alter things for the better, from properly funded education and a better transport system, to improved primary health care and a fairer tax system. The FGP also works for equality and a political system that is transparent, and in decision-making at municipality level. The FGP underlines the need for immediate planning for future energy needs.
Framland Nationalist Party (FNP) The party follows their European counterparts in many ways, arguing that the state should care for its citizens but not get otherwise economically involved. In the late 1990s they positioned themselves as a family-friendly party. In social policy the Nationalist Party generally have conservative opinions. On life issues, the party opposes euthanasia, and abortion, though it can support abortion in cases of rape or when the mother's life is at risk. The party does not support accessibility to contraception as a way of lowering abortion rates. They also want to ban research on human fetuses, and have expressed skepticism for proposals to liberalise the biotechnology laws in Framland.
Framland Nationalist Party strongly opposes membership in the European Union.
Pressure Groups The “United Skolkan” movement is small, but very vocal group arguing that Framland would be safer and more prosperous in a reunited Skolkan. As a first step, the group proposes to enter a Framland / Torrike union. William Oxen is the current leader of the movement. To reach the goal of an united Skolkan it is said that this group has strong ties to Torrike and most likely to the militia SKOLKAN EAGLES. During the last 5 years it was increasing activity noticeable.
“Our Children’s Future” (OCF) is an environmentalist movement especially concerned about untouched nature, nuclear power plants, and sustainable development. The group has currently 600 active members across the country. The OCF has its main office in Freja. Their current leader is Siw Harenstam.
FRAMLAND mediaThe Framish Information Sector is modern and well-funded. Framish people avidly read newspapers and there are a large number of them throughout the country as dailies and weeklies. Magazines are also popular although both are slowly losing ground to internetbased news content. Television is primarily satellite based except in the cities. International channels are readily available. Free speech is not only tolerated but encouraged. However, it is generally moderate in tone. Extremist rhetoric exists, but many private providers refuse to carry it (newspapers won’t print it or allow it to be advertised, same will be with radio and television stations). The Framish freedom of expression is liberal, but that expression is not mandated. The media are allowed to exercise their own editorial judgement. There is no dominan private media organisation in Framland although Torrike MediaCorp is a minor provider.
Media Ownership: Framland TV (FTV) FTV is financed by licence and advertising. It provides four national radio programmes and four terrestrial TV programmes. It has independent editorial rights.
FM IndependentThis is an Independent small media station that provides national and local radio services.
FM Today This is an Independent small media station that provides national and local radio services.
Independent Media This is an Independent small media station that provides national and local radio services
and print news.
I. GeneralThe Framland Defence Force is unusual in the region in that it is all volunteer and does not rely on conscription. It is also the smallest force in the region by a considerable margin. Technically, there is a single Defence Force with three branches of service; however, in effect it comprises of three separate services each with its own HQ structure, training organisations and uniform. The organisation of each of the services is extremely conventional and the structure reflects that of a much larger force. There is a reserve structure underpinning the Army and the Navy, but no reserve force for the Air Force. The Coast Guard is a separate organisation from the defence forces, although it is linked to them.
II. Political ContextIn keeping with the country’s modern and western outlook, the armed forces are completely apolitical. The formal Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is the King and members of the forces take an oath of loyalty to the King, but in practice, the forces answer to Parliament through the Minister of Defence. The ultimate control of the armed forces and their employment is civilian and political.
III. Strategic PerceptionFramland is extremely aware of the grandiose strategic visions of both Torrike and Bothnia and the potential for confrontation, if not actual conflict, with either of those countries. It is also conscious that its geographic position between the two renders it uniquely vulnerable in the event of a conflict between them. Occasional efforts by Torrike to ‘influence’ Framish actions or opinions serve as a useful reminder of the potential their neighbour has to disrupt relations. Framland is a member of the NATO, the UN and a firm supporter of international political organisations.
IV. Defence Policy Framland’s Defence Policy is subject to review on a 5 yearly basis. Current Defence policy was promulgated in 2012 and can be summarised as to provide for the military defence of the state, contribute to national and international peace and security and to fulfil any other roles assigned by the Government.
Expenditure of Defence is normally around 1% of GDP.
V. Defence Priorities Framland has no declared Defence Priorities as such, but does publish the following Defence High Level Goals:
- To provide for the defence of the State against armed aggression through the development and maintenance of appropriate military capabilities.
- To contribute to the security and stability of the State by providing, on direction, Military Aid to the Civil Authorities (MACA). Framland’s conceptual framework for this is very similar to that of the UK, categorising aid in three types; Military Aid to other Government Departments ; Military Aid to the Civil Power (MACP); Military Aid to the Civil Community (MACC).
- To contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security through participation in NATO.
- To contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security through participation in UN approved peace support, crisis management and humanitarian relief operations.
VI. Military StructureThe Framland Defence Forces structure is conventional with a central MOD staff under the Chief of Defence Forces (CHOD) reporting to the Minister and advising him. The CHOD’s staff acts as a General Staff, but there is no joint operational HQ. Underneath the central staff, there is the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and the Defence Training Centre. The Air Corps is technically a branch of the Army, but operates as a distinct service. Although a separate organisation, the Coast Guard has close links with the Naval Service. Civil Defence is the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior.
FRAMLAND Armed Forces I. GeneralFramland is unique in the region in maintaining fully professional armed forces, conscription having been abolished in the 1960s. The assumption then was that with a small population and a limited defence budget, a small, all professional, force would be more effective than a large and under equipped conscript force. This remains the consensus. Back up for the regular forces is provided by the Defence Reserve Force (DRF), a part time force that mirrors the organisation of the regular forces. Loosely modelled on the British Territorial Army, it is largely regionally based. The DRF’s members are a mix of retired professionals and volunteers. Its operational capability does not match that of the regular forces, although some DRF troops have been deployed on peace keeping missions and together with the former regular members, provides an element of operational experience to the force. In total, the regular forces number around 20,000, with an additional 14,000 in the DRF. Framland possesses only a very limited defence industry, largely restricted to the simpler elements of repair and maintenance. Equipment for the forces is widely sourced and the forces are content to purchase surplus or second hand weapons systems mainly from NATO member states.
II. Land ForcesThe Army employs a conventional Brigade structure, with three regional Brigades reporting to the Army HQ in Freja. This structure is mirrored by the Reserve Forces element which, nominally, can provide an additional three Brigades on mobilisation. Technically, the Air Corps is a branch of the Army, but it prefers to portray itself as separate. The Army includes all the traditional branches of service (Infantry, Armour, Artillery, Engineers, Ordnance, CIS, Medical, Transport and Military Police). There is also a small special reconnaissance force.
III. Maritime ForcesFramland’s maritime force is to all intents and purposes, a coastal patrol and defence force. The Naval Service is Framland’s principle maritime agency (the Coast Guard is the other) with a general responsibility to meet potential and actual defence requirements. The force has a total of 8 surface vessels and a number of inshore patrol boats. The Naval Service describes itself as a constabulary navy, which is probably the best summary of its capabilities and nature. In total, there are some 2,000 personnel in the regular service, with an additional 1,000 in the Naval Reserve.
IV. Air ForcesAs is the case for the rest of the Framish Forces, the Air Corps is both small and limited in its capabilities. However, it is deemed by Framland to be adequate for its purpose. Technically a branch of the Army, the Air Corps has a considerable degree of autonomy and likes to present Itself as an independent service. The nature of its activities tends to emphasise this approach, however, in the final analysis, the Chief of the Air Corps reports to the Chief of the Army. The force is spread very thinly throughout Framland and since its prime function is to support the other two branches of service, so the point is perhaps moot.
V. Reserve ForcesThe basic reserve forces structure mirrors that of the regular army. There is a small Naval Reserve Force of around 1,000 personnel, the majority of whom form fiv protection companies charged with the security of naval bases in the event of mobilisation. The Army reserve comprises some 14,000 personnel organised into three infantry Brigades each of which is twinned with one of the regular Regional Brigades. Each unit within the Reserves is affiliated to a regular unit with which it has a direct working and support relationship. All Defence Medical Staff specialising in secondary medical care work are mustered in the Reserve Forces.